The development of wind energy is hindered by measurement problems: in particular the fluctuating wind speed introduces large uncertainties. For example, it is almost impossible to confirm anticipated small performance improvements resulting from design modifications during field tests. As long as convincing field tests have not confirmed the actual improvement, the industry will hesitate in investing in turbine design improvements. Uncertainties and inaccuracies have an impact on different processes during the implementation of wind energy projects, such as:
• Warranty of performance;
• Assessment of wind resources.
In general terms the uncertainty of the results measuring and testing techniques are typically much higher than one would require in practice. Since this problem covers many areas of wind energy, the work package is defined as an integrating activity. The problem is especially relevant for the following areas:
Electricity output related
• Measuring power performance testing especially in wind farms;
• Experimental verification of small turbine improvements (in the order of a few percent);
• Verification of aerodynamic codes;
• Testing of turbine response to turbulence and wind shear.
• Mechanical load measurements in farms aimed at verification of aeroelastic codes (blade root moments, yaw moments, tower foot moments etc.).
• Measurement of wake effects and wind resources inside wind farms;
• Measurements of inter farm effects (regarding velocity profiles, turbulence, surface shear recovery distances etc.);
• Measurements of the interaction wind farms and microclimate.
The objectives of the metrology work package are to develop metrology tools in wind energy to significantly enhance the quality of measurement and testing techniques. The development of the basic metrology measurands is done by:
• Identifying all relevant measures within the wind energy
• Describing their definition in detail;
• Identifying all relevant influence parameters;
• Quantifying their systematic influence on measurements;
• Specifying traceability;
• Applying advanced uncertainty analysis methods.
The measurands within the wind energy community have been identified in collaboration with the other work packages. The activities carried out are:• Identifying all relevant measurands within the wind energy community
• Describing their definition in detail
• Identifying all relevant influence parameters
• Quantifying their systematic influence on measurements
• Specifying traceability and
• Applying advanced uncertainty analysis methods. The report presents a state of the art assessment to identify all relevant measurands. The required accuracies and required sampling frequencies are stated from the perspective of the users of the data (the other work packages in UPWIND). The report is: P.J. Eecen, N. Stafanatos, S.M. Petersen, K.S. Hansen UPWIND METROLOGY Deliverable D1A2.1: List of Measurement Parameters ECN-E--07-015 The required accuracies and required sampling frequencies have been identified from the perspective of the users of the data (the other work packages in UPWIND). The work performed has led to the definition of a database of measurement instruments. The list of parameters is an important table in the database, where a list of state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a list of state-of-the-art measurement techniques, a sensor list and a list of commercially available sensors. Especially the many relations between all parameters are valuable additions to the database. The Metrology Database is a valuable tool for the further assessment and interest has been shown from other work packages, such as Training. This report describes the structure of the database and instructions how to use it. The Metrology Database will be made available from http://www.winddata.com. The Upwind partners invite all users to further expand the information in the database and share it with the community. The report with the description of the database structure is: P.J. Eecen, N. Stefanatos, T.F. Pedersen, K.S. Hansen UPWIND METROLOGY. Deliverable D 1A2.2; Metrology Database - Definition ECN-E--08-079 The largest part of the work package has been devoted to the support of international standardization, such as MEASNET and IEC. Innovations of new measurement equipment, measurement methods, analysis techniques have been assessed on existing datasets supplied by various other projects funded from National or EU projects. The following table gives an overview of the most important aspects. The reader is referred to the final report of Upwind Metrology. The final report: P.J. Eecen, J.W. Wagenaar (ECN), N. Stefanatos (CRES), T.F. Pedersen, R. Wagner (Riso-DTU), K.S. Hansen (DTU-MEK) FINAL REPORT UPWIND 1A2 METROLOGY, ECN-E--11-013
Work package leader
• Energy research Centre of the Netherlands -ECN (NL)
Work package partners
• Risø National Laboratory - DTU (DK)
• Centre for Renewable Energy Sources -CRES (GR)
Mr. Peter Eecen
Energy Centre of the Netherlands (ECN)
P.O. Box 1
1755 ZG Petten
Tel: +31/224 56 82 79